Graphic File Formats in Photography
Graphic format - is a way of recording the graphic information and the basis for working with digital photos. In digital photography, in spite of all the variety of graphic formats, it all comes down to JPEG, TIFF and RAW. On the Internet, information on the sites is usually presented formats JPEG, GIF, PNG.
The file format contains the raw data coming directly fromthe camera. These files are not processed by the camera processor (unlike JPG)and contain information about the original recording. RAW can be compressed without any loss of quality.
Benefits of RAW are obvious - as opposed to the JPG, whichhas been treated in the chamber and is already stored with data compression -RAW gives the broadest possibilities for processing photos and retains maximum quality.
The note. Different manufacturers of photographic equipmentuse different algorithms to create RAW in their cells. Each manufacturer comesup with its own solution for RAW-file - NEF - Nikon, CR2 - Canon.
JPEG (also knownas JPG)
This is the most common image file format.
His popularity has earned Flexible JPG compression. Ifnecessary, the image can be saved at the highest quality. Or compress it to aminimum file size for transmission over the network.
The JPG compression algorithm is applied to the loss ofquality. What does this give us? The apparent disadvantage of this system -loss of image quality every time you save the file. With other image compression 10 times simplifies the data transfer.
In practice, preservation of photographs with the minimum compression ratio no visible degradation in image quality. That is why JPG -the most common and popular storage format image files.
The TIFF format is very popular for storing images. It canstore photos in different color spaces (RBG, CMYK, YCbCr, CIE Lab, etc.) Andwith a high color depth (8, 16, 32 and 64 bit). TIFF is widely supported graphics applications and is used in the printing industry.
Unlike JPG, TIFF image will not lose in quality after eachsave file. But, unfortunately, because of this TIFF files weigh in at timesmore JPG.
The right to TIFF format is currently owned by Adobe. Photoshop can save TIFF without merging layers.
PSD format is used in Photoshop. PSD allows you to save image with many layers, any color depth and in any color space.
The most common format is used to store intermediate orfinal results of complex processing with the ability to change individual elements.
Just PSD supports lossless compression. But the wealth of information that can contain PSD image, greatly increases its weight.
The format of BMP is one of the first graphic formats. Itdetects any program working with graphics, format support is integrated intothe Windows operating systems and OS / 2.
BMP stores data with color depth up to 48 bits and a maximumsize of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels.
At the moment, BMP format practically do not use anyInternet (JPG weighs a fraction) of any printing.
The GIF format was created on the Internet dawn for imagesharing. It can hratit compressed without losing image data in the format of upto 256 colors. The GIF format is ideal for drawings and charts, as well assupports transparency and animation.
Just GIF supports lossless compression.
The PNG format was created for improvement, and to replacethe GIF format graphic format that does not require a license for use. UnlikeGIF, PNG there have alpha channel support and the ability to store an unlimited number of colors.
PNG compresses the data without loss, which makes it very convenient for storing intermediate image processing versions.
JPEG 2000 (orjp2)
The new graphic format created for JPEG replacement. Withthe same as the file size of a JPEG 2000 format is 30% smaller than JPG.
If a strong compression of JPEG 2000 does not break theimage into squares, JPEG format specific.
Unfortunately, at the moments the little rasprostanžn formatand is only supported in Safari and Mozilla / Firerox (via Quicktime).